A
A criterion
Mandatory requirement to be fulfilled by any football club applying for a licence to enter the UEFA club competitions.
A international
Match between two national teams composed of the best eligible players.
abandoned match
Match terminated by the referee before the end of normal playing time for reasons beyond control or if the safety of players or match officials can no longer be guaranteed.
abdomen
The part of the body that lies between the chest and the pelvis and encloses the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, and pancreas.
abdominal external oblique muscle
An abdominal muscle whose action diminishes the capacity of the abdomen and draws the chest down.
abdominal muscle
Muscle of the abdomen.
acceleration
The rate of change of velocity.
access to the field of play
A passage onto and away from the field of play that guarantees the safe entry and exit of players and match officials.
accumulated foul
Foul in futsal punished by a direct free kick, for which the defending team may not form a defensive wall as from the sixth such foul in each half.
Achilles tendon injury
Rupture or other damage to the Achilles tendon.
Achilles tendon rupture
Rupture of the Achilles tendon.
Achilles tendon tear
Rupture of the Achilles tendon.
acid-base balance
Balance between acids and bases in the body.
ACL
Cruciate ligament passing from the posterior part of the femur to the anterior part of the tibia.
ACL rupture
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.
ACL tear
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.
ACTH
Hormone used in an attempt to increase the corticosteroid levels in the blood, and to produce the associated euphoric effects on the organism.
action list
A document drawn up by the administrator after each meeting of a UEFA committee or UEFA expert panel, recording the decisions taken, measures agreed upon, actions to be taken and duties to be fulfilled.
active bribery
Offence committed by a person who promises or grants an unjustified advantage to a third party.
active corruption
Offence committed by a person who promises or grants an unjustified advantage to a third party.
actual playing time
Duration of the net time the ball has been in play during a match.
acute angle
Angle formed by the goal and the player in possession of the ball, who faces the goal laterally and not directly in front.
adaptation
Modification of certain organs by means of training.
adapter
Any piece of hardware that allows two disparate pieces of equipment to work together.
adaptor
Any piece of hardware that allows two disparate pieces of equipment to work together.
additional time
Prolongation of either period of the match estimated by the referee in compensation for time lost through substitutions, treatment of injured players, deliberate time-wasting or any other cause.
adductor magnus
A muscle whose action adducts and extends the thigh.
ad-hoc committee
Body of FIFA that may be set up at any time by the FIFA Executive Committee to advise and assist it in fulfilling its duties.
Administrative Experts Panel
A UEFA expert panel composed of experts in the field of administrative matters whose duty is to support the HatTrick Committee in its work.
administrator
A person from the UEFA administration appointed by the UEFA general secretary for each UEFA committee and UEFA expert panel whose main duties are to prepare and organise meetings with the chairman, to draft the action list, and to act as the committee's contact person.
adrenaline
A hormone increasing blood glucose concentration and secreted in response to physical or mental stress.
adrenocorticotropic hormone
Hormone used in an attempt to increase the corticosteroid levels in the blood, and to produce the associated euphoric effects on the organism.
advantage
Decision taken by the referee to allow play to continue although an offence has been committed, because the team against which the offence was committed is in possession of the ball and would not benefit from a stoppage in play for a free kick.
advantage rule
Decision taken by the referee to allow play to continue although an offence has been committed, because the team against which the offence was committed is in possession of the ball and would not benefit from a stoppage in play for a free kick.
adverse analytical finding
Report from a laboratory or other approved testing entity that identifies in a sample the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers, including elevated quantities of endogenous substances, or evidence of the use of a prohibited method.
aerial shot
Camera shot from the point-of-view of an airborne craft, such as an airplane, helicopter or airship.
aerobic activity
Any continuous activity of large muscle groups that forces the heart and lungs to work harder for an extended period of time.
aerobic endurance
The body's ability to exercise whole muscle groups over an extended period of time at moderate intensity, using aerobic energy.
aerobic energy supply
Energy supply that requires oxygen.
aetiology
Study of the causes of diseases and their predisposing factors.
AFC
Umbrella organisation of the national associations in Asia which has its headquarters in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and is one of the six confederations recognised by FIFA.
AFC Asian Cup
Competition for national teams of the member associations of the AFC, held every four years.
afferent neuron
Any neuron that transmits nervous impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system.
African Cup of Nations
Football competition between African national teams organised every two years by the CAF.
age and experience
Conditioning principle postulating that age and experience should be the basis for a conditioning programme.
aggregate score
The total of the scores from the first-leg match and the second-leg match.
agility
The capacity to decelerate, accelerate, and change direction quickly while maintaining good body control without decreasing speed.
airway
Any of the various parts of the respiratory tract through which air passes during breathing.
allocation of tickets
Fixed number of tickets for the participating national associations or clubs according to the relevant competition regulations.
allowance for time lost
Prolongation of either period of the match estimated by the referee in compensation for time lost through substitutions, treatment of injured players, deliberate time-wasting or any other cause.
all-rounder
A player who can play effectively in a number of different positions.
all-seater stadium
Stadium that does not have any standing room or in which any standing room is closed or turned into seats.
alternative venue
A stadium suitable for staging a match which can no longer take place, for whatever reason, in the stadium initially foreseen.
amateur
Footballer who is not considered a professional, i.e. who does not have a written contract with a club and is not paid more than the expenses he effectively incurs in return for his footballing activity.
amateur football
Football played in lower leagues and/or as a pastime rather than as a profession.
amateur football referee
Referee who officiates at matches at local and regional amateur levels.
amateur player
Footballer who is not considered a professional, i.e. who does not have a written contract with a club and is not paid more than the expenses he effectively incurs in return for his footballing activity.
ambient sound
Sound or sounds used to establish location and a certain atmosphere which are recorded during a TV production.
ambush marketing
Any marketing, promotional, advertising and public relations activities relating to sports events, that are intended to capitalise on the goodwill associated with the event but which are undertaken by persons not authorised to do so.
amino acid
Building block of proteins.
anabolic
Substance prohibited at all times used to increase muscle size and strength, to reduce the amount of time required to recover after exercise, and to train harder and for a longer period of time.
anabolic agent
Substance prohibited at all times used to increase muscle size and strength, to reduce the amount of time required to recover after exercise, and to train harder and for a longer period of time.
anabolism
The part of metabolism in which substances are built up.
anaerobic endurance
Short-term endurance capacity which relies mainly on anaerobic energy pathways.
anaerobic energy supply
Energy supply that does not require oxygen.
anaerobic exercise
Intense activity requiring energy production without using oxygen.
anaerobic threshold
The upper limit of exercise intensity that can be sustained aerobically.
anaesthesia
Medication or treatment that reduces the perception of pain and other sensations by blocking off impulses from the nerves.
analgesic therapy
Therapy designed to relieve pain.
analysis of samples
Analysis which is conducted by WADA-accredited laboratories or as otherwise approved by WADA in accordance with the International Standard for laboratory analysis.
analysis of the A sample
Analysis which is conducted to search for the presence of a prohibited substance or the use of a prohibited method in the player's A sample, while the B sample is stored.
analysis of the B sample
Analysis which takes place if there is a positive analytical finding with the A sample and which is conducted by the same laboratory by personnel who were not directly involved in the analysis of the A sample.
angle
The corner where the goalpost meets the crossbar.
ankle
The region of the ankle joint between the leg and the foot.
ankle bone
The bone of the ankle that is connected to the tibia, fibula and calcaneus and forms part of the ankle joint.
ankle joint
Joint formed by the tibia, the fibula and the talus.
Annual Business Meeting
Annual meeting of the International Football Association Board having the authority to consider general issues submitted to the Board.
Annual General Meeting
Annual meeting of the International Football Association Board to discuss and decide on proposed alterations to the Laws of the Game and other relevant matters affecting Association Football that fall within the remit of the Board.
annulment of the result of a match
Disciplinary measure by means of which the outcome reached on the field of play is made void.
antagonist
Muscle that counteracts the action of another muscle.
antagonistic muscle
Muscle that counteracts the action of another muscle.
antebrachium
The part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow.
anterior cruciate ligament
Cruciate ligament passing from the posterior part of the femur to the anterior part of the tibia.
anterior cruciate ligament tear
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.
anterior serratus muscle
A chest muscle that rotates the scapula.
anterior tibial muscle
Muscle whose action dorsiflexes, supinates and inverts the foot.
antibiotic
A medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys micro-organisms.
antibody
A blood protein produced by the body in response to and counteracting an antigen.
Anti-Doping Panel
A UEFA expert panel composed of members of the Medical Committee, external experts and observers, whose duty is to support the Medical Committee in its work and, more specifically, to propose UEFA's anti-doping programme and policy.
anti-doping programme
The entirety of measures taken by sports organisations and federations and national authorities in the different areas of anti-doping which aim to uphold and preserve the ethics of sport, to safeguard the physical health and mental integrity of athletes and to ensure that all sport competitors have an equal chance.
anti-doping rule violation
A case, circumstance or conduct that goes against valid anti-doping rules, and which results in disciplinary proceedings and sanctions against the parties concerned.
antigen
Foreign substance which may induce the production of antibodies.
anti-racism campaign
Activity established by a club or a national association to ensure fair treatment, regardless of colour, background or appearance.
aorta
Largest artery in the body, which carries oxygen-rich blood away from the left ventricle of the heart to vessels that reach the rest of the body.
Appeal Committee
The higher instance of the FIFA judicial bodies, responsible for hearing appeals against Disciplinary Committee decisions.
Appeals Body
Organ for the administration of justice which has jurisdiction to hear appeals against decisions of the Control and Disciplinary Body.
applause
Appreciation or praise shown by clapping the hands.
arch
The flexible curve in the foot.
arch of the foot
The flexible curve in the foot.
archive footage
All film and audio footage stored in an archive.
artery
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
arthrodial cartilage
The cartilage covering the articular surfaces.
articular cartilage
The cartilage covering the articular surfaces.
artificial surface
Top layer of a playing field made of a blend of grass-like fibres and having the appearance and qualities of natural grass.
artificial turf
Top layer of a playing field made of a blend of grass-like fibres and having the appearance and qualities of natural grass.
Artificial Turf Panel
A UEFA expert panel composed of experts in the field of football turf whose duty is to support the Stadium and Security Committee in its work and, more specifically, to draw up recommendations for possible changes regarding artificial turf and corresponding regulations, to conduct safety and injury studies, and to analyse and develop football specific criteria for football fields.
Asian Cup
Competition for national teams of the member associations of the AFC, held every four years.
Asian Football Confederation
Umbrella organisation of the national associations in Asia which has its headquarters in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and is one of the six confederations recognised by FIFA.
assessment of endurance performance
Measurement of a player's aerobic power.
assessment process
Minimum requirements that the licensor has to put in place for verification of compliance with the criteria described in the manual as the basis for the issuance of a licence to a football club.
assist
Final pass from a player to a team-mate to enable the latter to score a goal.
assistant coach
Person who supports the head coach in all football matters.
assistant referee
Person who assists the referee in controlling the match in accordance with the Laws of the Game.
assistant referee's signal
Gesture made by the assistant referee, using his flag, to indicate a substitution, an offside position, a throw-in, a corner kick or goal kick.
association coach
A coach who works for a football association.
Association Football
The game of football as controlled by FIFA and organised in accordance with the Laws of the Game.
Association of European Professional Football Leagues
A non-profit association that aims to create and increase cooperation among its Member Leagues in order to develop their own activities and to act as a whole while promoting professional football in accordance with the respective statutes and regulations of UEFA and FIFA, and whose main objectives are to be the voice of professional football leagues in Europe, to participate in and appoint representatives to UEFA committees, to consider social dialogue issues at a European level, and, where appropriate, to act as a social partner.
association team
Representative squad of a country for which players are eligible to play on the basis of their nationality.
Associations Committee
Standing committee of FIFA that deals with relations between FIFA and the FIFA member associations, draws up proposals for optimum cooperation, and monitors the evolution of the FIFA statutes and regulations of FIFA, the confederations and FIFA member associations.
association-trained player
A footballer who, between the age of 15 and 21, and irrespective of his nationality and age, has been registered with a club or with other clubs affiliated to the same national association as that of his current club for a period, continuous or not, of three entire seasons or of 36 months.
astragalus
The bone of the ankle that is connected to the tibia, fibula and calcaneus and forms part of the ankle joint.
athletic tape
Bandage made of high-tensile strength cotton backcloth with durable adhesive, which is used to provide support for knees, ankles and wrists in sporting activities.
atmosphere
The surrounding spirit and general mood in a stadium radiated by the fans and other factors.
atrium
One of the two smaller chambers of the heart, where blood collects before passing to the ventricle.
attack
Those players in a team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal and who are mainly concerned with creating and scoring goals.
attack
An offensive move by a team or a player in a match in an attempt to score a goal.
attack
To take the initiative in a match in an attempt to score a goal.
attacker
Player whose main task is to attack the opposing team's goal.
attacking fullback
A defender with a propensity to make attacking runs along the wing.
attacking midfield player
Player whose chief job is to control play in the centre of the field and to create opportunities for the strikers as well as score goals himself.
attacking midfielder
Player whose chief job is to control play in the centre of the field and to create opportunities for the strikers as well as score goals himself.
attacking play
General tactics of playing offensively.
attacking player
Player whose main task is to attack the opposing team's goal.
attacking team
Team which is in possession of the ball and tries to score a goal.
attempted use
Act of purposely engaging in conduct planned to culminate in the ingestion, injection or consumption of any prohibited substance or in the application of any prohibited method, constituting an anti-doping rule violation.
attendance
Number of spectators at a football match.
audio feed
An electronic signal that conveys acoustic information.
audio material
All audio footage used in TV and radio production.
auditors
Board of FIFA appointed by the FIFA Congress for a period of four years to audit the accounts approved by the Finance Committee and present a report to the FIFA Congress.
auricle
One of the two smaller chambers of the heart, where blood collects before passing to the ventricle.
authority of the referee
Power given to the referee to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match for which he has been appointed, from the moment he enters the match venue until the time he leaves.
autocue
A device that displays a text on a monitor in front of a camera so that the presenter can read it but the camera does not see it.
automatic one-match suspension
Disciplinary measure banning a person from taking part in one or more future matches, as the person has been shown a red card.
autonomic nervous system
Part of the nervous system that regulates the body's involuntary functions.
average attendance
Average number of spectators during a season or a competition.
avoiding relegation
To avoid being demoted to a lower playing division.
awarding of a match by default
Disciplinary measure taken against a team by which it is deemed to have lost the match 0-3.
away defeat
Loss of a match played away from home.
away goal
Goal scored at an opposing team's ground.
away goals rule
Competition regulations providing that where teams play each other home and away, any goals scored at the ground of the opposing team will count double if the aggregate scores are equal after the second match.
away jersey
Playing kit used by a team in away matches when its first-choice colours clash with those of the home team.
away kit
Playing kit used by a team in away matches when its first-choice colours clash with those of the home team.
away match
A match played on the opposing team's ground.
away sector
Part of a stadium where the visiting team's supporters are seated.
away shirt
Playing kit used by a team in away matches when its first-choice colours clash with those of the home team.
away strip
Playing kit used by a team in away matches when its first-choice colours clash with those of the home team.
away table
Table that is based only upon away matches.
away team
Team that travels to play a match on the opposing team's pitch.
away win
Victory gained in a match played on the opponents' ground.
away winning streak
Series of consecutive away wins of a team.
0-9
11-a-side football
Football played in accordance with the Laws of the Game.
16:9 aspect ratio
Ratio between width (16 units) and height (9 units) of the TV picture on the screen.
16-metre camera
Camera installed in the main stand at the same level as or higher than the main camera, facing the 16-metre line.
20-metre camera
Fixed pitch-side camera, positioned 20 metres from the goal line on the same side as the main camera.
3-4-3
Comparatively rare system of play consisting of three defenders, four midfielders and three attackers.
3-5-2
System of play which is similar to 5-3-2 except that the two wing backs are oriented more towards the attack and thus help outnumber the opposition in midfield.
4:3 aspect ratio
Ratio between width (4 units) and height (3 units) of the TV picture on the screen.
4-2-3-1
Relatively defensive formation using a back four, two holding midfielders to screen the defence but also to initiate attacks, three attacking midfielders and one forward.
4-2-4
System of play consisting of a flat back four, two midfielders and four attackers, usually two centre forwards flanked by two wingers.
4-3-3
Attacking formation with four defenders, three midfielders and three attackers.
4-4-2
System of play in which four defenders generally play in a flat line, while the four midfielders include one playing wider on each side of the central two, plus two strikers.
4-5-1
Defensive system of play, with four defenders and five midfield players, which is difficult for opposing players to break down and which can be used to preserve a lead, while relying also upon counter-attacks.
5.1 channel surround
Multichannel sound technology that features five channels of sound (the left, right, center, left rear and right rear positions) and one channel for low frequency effects, which is usually the subwoofer.
5-3-2
Defensive system of play which has three central defenders and which is heavily reliant on two wing backs occasionally providing width for the team when attacking.
7.1 channel surround
Multichannel sound technology that features seven channels of sound (on the left, right, centre, left surround, right surround, left rear and right rear positions) and one channel for low frequency effects, which is usually a subwoofer.